Chimaltenango . . . ZOTHETSA

Akuluakulu Akuluakulu Akuwonetsedwa: Chowonadi Chotsegula Maso Pankhani Yoyezetsa Mankhwala Omwe Muyenera Kudziwa

ndi Chinsinsi CHAKULU kuti BIG Pharma akuganiza kuti ndinu opusa kwambiri kuti musamvetsetse!

Vuto loyesa mankhwala a nyama

Mankhwala osokoneza bongo, mbewa, DNA, ndi ziphuphu za Big Pharma

Tamverani! Nkhani yowerengedwa ndi LifeLine Media AI Dariyo.
Tamverani! Nkhani yowerengedwa ndi LifeLine Media AI Emily.
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Poyamba zinali zotetezeka komanso zothandiza, tsopano zakupha. N'chifukwa chiyani mankhwala ambiri akukumbukiridwa?

16 February 2022 | By Richard Ahern - Kodi tiyenera kukhulupirira mwakhungu kuti mankhwala onse ndi otetezeka komanso ogwira mtima chifukwa a FDA amatero? Kodi sayansi yomwe imayambitsa makampani opanga mankhwala nthawi zonse imakhala yangwiro?

Mu 2022, awa ndiye mafunso ofunika kwambiri omwe tiyenera kufunsa!

M’nkhani ino, tiyankha mafunso ovutawa.

Tikukhala m'nthawi yomwe sinachitikepo a mliri wapadziko lonse pamene funso la mphamvu ya katemera ndi chitetezo cha mankhwala sichinayambe chakhalapo kwambiri. Ambiri aife timakayikira za chitetezo cha mankhwala, katemera, ndi chithandizo chamankhwala, koma kupeza umboni wolimba wotsimikizira chilichonse ndikosatheka kwa anthu.

M'malo mwake, tili pomwe pano pomwe wina angayerekeze kukayikira ngati mankhwala ali ndi mphamvu kapena chitetezo cha katemera, ndi zachilendo kuwona munthu ameneyo aletsedwa "kufalitsa zabodza" pawailesi yakanema.

Kamodzi mankhwala avomerezedwa ndi FDA, maboma ndi Njira Yakukulu amafuna kuti tisamakayikira za chitetezo chake. Iwo omwe angayerekeze kukayikira "sayansi" yoyesa mankhwala amatchulidwa kuti ndi akatswiri a chiwembu.

Ndipo ...

Pakhala pali 12,787 okumbukira mankhwala onse operekedwa ndi FDA kuyambira 2012.

Pafupifupi, mankhwala 1,279 amakumbukiridwa chaka chilichonse. United States ikutsogola ndi anthu 12,028 akukumbukira, dziko lomwe lachiwiri kukumbukira kwambiri ndi Canada, lomwe lili ndi mankhwala ochepera 554 omwe amakumbukiridwa.

Ziwerengerozi ziyenera kukudabwitsani inu pachimake, aliyense wa iwo FDA imakumbukira ndi "woops, pepani kuti tasokoneza" ndi FDA.

Nkhaniyi ikufuna kufotokoza chifukwa chomwe anthu ambiri amakumbukira mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

Mochulukirachulukira, nkhaniyi ikufuna kuwonetsa kuti simuli "otsutsa sayansi" mukafunsa za sayansi yomwe imayambitsa kuyezetsa mankhwala. 

Iyi si nthano yachiwembu, iyi ndi mfundo yofalitsidwa mwasayansi kuti Big Pharma yasesa pansi pa rug.

Zosokoneza zomwe zafotokozedwa pansipa zaponderezedwa ndi asayansi ndipo palibe kutchulapo zomwe zingapezeke muzofalitsa zodziwika bwino. Tsoka ilo, chifukwa sayansi yomwe idayesa zamankhwala imafuna kumvetsetsa bwino za biology, osatchulapo lingaliro lina, ndizotheka kuti atolankhani ambiri samvetsetsa, ali ndi mantha, kapena aulesi kwambiri kuti anene za izi. Izi zipangitsanso kuti zikhale zovuta kwa anthu kuti amvetsetse zomwe zili pachiwopsezo, ndiye chifukwa chake chidziwitsochi chakhala chikudziwika kwa nthawi yayitali.

Kuphatikiza apo, chifukwa choyipa kwambiri ndichakuti chowonadi cha momwe mankhwala amayezedwera chidzawononga Big Pharma chifukwa chimakayikitsa za chitetezo cha mankhwala masauzande ambiri, katemera, ndi njira zochiritsira zomwe “zavomerezedwa” kale kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu. Kutengera mozama, titha kuwona kuyesanso kwakukulu kwamankhwalawa ndi kuchuluka komwe kukukumbukiridwa.

Kodi Big Pharma ndiyabwino mokwanira kuyika thanzi kuposa phindu?

Ayi!

Mpaka vuto lowopsali lokhudzana ndi chitetezo chamankhwala litayamba kuyang'aniridwa ndi anthu ambiri, sizokayikitsa kuti tikuwona kuyesayesa kulikonse, koma ndiudindo wa omwe akudziwa kuti azingokhalira kufuula mpaka makampani opanga mankhwala apereka umboni wotsimikizika kuti awongolera ndipo njira zoyenera zilili. malo kuti apewe mavuto amtsogolo.

Ife tiri LifeLine Media aziwunikira zomwe apezazi ndikuzichita m'njira yomwe aliyense angamvetse, mosasamala kanthu za kumvetsetsa kwanu kwa sayansi. Tikufuna kuti chidziwitsochi chizipezeka kwa aliyense, popanda jargon ya sayansi, kuti mutatha kuwerenga izi mumvetsetse bwino mavuto omwe amayesa kuyezetsa mankhwala ndi chitetezo chamankhwala.

Miyoyo ya anthu ili pachiwopsezo…

Mwachidule, zomwe zapezekazi zikukhudzana ndi vuto la majini mu makoswe a labu, mwina chifukwa cha kuswana kogwidwa, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti momwe amachitira ndi mankhwala si zachibadwa. Chofunika koposa, izi zimadzutsa kukayikira za kuyezetsa konse kwamankhwala panyama zomwe zidawetedwa m'ma lab.

Kodi mwakonzeka kuphunzira zomwe Big Pharma akuganiza kuti ndinu opusa kwambiri kuti musamvetsetse?

M'ndandanda wazopezekamo

FDA idavomereza mankhwala omwe adakumbukiridwa

FDA kukumbukira mndandanda
FDA idavomereza mankhwala omwe adachotsedwa pamsika kuyambira 2012.

Tsatirani sayansi

Ndi kangati mwamvapo akuluakulu a boma akunena kuti "tsatirani sayansi" pankhani ya mankhwala ndi katemera mphamvu?

Choncho, tiyeni “tizitsatira sayansi”! 

Nawa mwachidule mwachidule za biology kuseri kwa zomwe tikukamba, ngati mukuzidziwa kale izi khalani omasuka dumphani gawo ili, koma ndizofunika kwambiri pa nkhani yovuta ya chitetezo chachipatala.

Tiyeni tilowe mu…

Tengani selo m'thupi lanu ndikuyang'ana pa maikulosikopu yamphamvu. Mudzawona kachidutswa kakang'ono kamene kali ndi kachidutswa kakang'ono, kotchedwa cell nucleus. Mkati mwa phata muli zonse zanu DNA, mbiri yanu yathunthu komanso yapadera ya majini yomwe imalemba kuti "inu".

DNA ndiye chizindikiro cha moyo.

DNA imapindidwa ndi kupindidwa kukhala ma chromosome. Ma chromosome amagawidwa m'zigawo za DNA zomwe zimatchedwa majini, ndipo jini iliyonse imasankha khalidwe linalake. Pali majini mazana mpaka masauzande pa chromosome iliyonse.

Tangolingalirani phata lake ngati laibulale (yaing’ono yokhala ndi mabuku 46 a anthu); ma chromosome ndiwo mabuku amodzi, ndipo majini ndiwo ndime za m’mabuku amenewo.

Asayansi amakonda zinthu mwadongosolo, motero amawerengera ma chromosome awiri. Kuti ndikupatseni zitsanzo, ma chromosome awiri ali ndi jini yomwe imatsimikizira kukula kwa ubongo wanu. Ma chromosome ogonana (awiri 23) ali ndi majini omwe amatsimikizira kuti ndinu mwamuna kapena mkazi.

Anthu ali ndi ma chromosomes 23 ndi 46 pamodzi.

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana imakhala ndi ma chromosomes osiyanasiyana. Mwachitsanzo, mbewa zili ndi ma chromosomes 20 ndipo okwana 40. Kumbali ina, njovu zili ndi ma chromosomes 28 ndi 56 onse.

Kumbukirani, ma chromosome ndi zidutswa za DNA ...

DNA imene imakhudza makhalidwe a chamoyo imatchedwa coding DNA chifukwa imalemba mapuloteni amene amapanga chamoyocho (ife ndife opangidwa ndi mapuloteni). Majini akulemba DNA. Ngati ma code DNA awonongeka, amatha kuvulaza kwambiri chamoyo chifukwa mapuloteni olakwika amapangidwa.

Mukukumbukira kuchokera m'kalasi ya biology kuti ma cell amagawikana nthawi zonse?

Magawo a cell mitosis
Momwe maselo amagawira ndi kutengera DNA yawo.

Nthawi zonse selo likagawanika liyenera kukopera DNA yonse ya m’kati mwake. Nthawi kugawanika kwa ma cell, ma code DNA ayenera kutetezedwa kuti ateteze masinthidwe oopsa.

Khalani ndi ine, izi zikhala zomveka posachedwa!

Osati zizindikiro zonse za DNA zamapuloteni, palinso DNA yosalemba zomwe sizilemba chilichonse; chifukwa chake amatchedwa nthawi zambiri DNA yopanda kanthu.

DNA yopanda ntchito ndiyopanda pake!

Mapeto a ma chromosome amapangidwa ndi DNA yopanda kanthu ndipo amatchedwa telomeres. Ma telomere amateteza DNA yolembera ma chromosome kuti isawonongeke pakagawika ma cell.

Onani izi:

Mapangidwe ndi ntchito za ma telomere zili ngati mapeto a pulasitiki a chingwe cha nsapato chomwe chimalepheretsa kusweka.

Ma telomere alinso ngati fusesi pa bomba.

Iwo ali ngati fuse chifukwa nthawi zonse selo likagawikana ndi kukopera ma chromosome ake amataya kachigawo kakang’ono ka DNA yake. Izi ndi zotsatira zosalephereka za makina omwe amachokera ku kubwereza kwa DNA. Choncho, kutalika kwa telomere ndi moyo wautali zimagwirizana mwachindunji; Tikamakalamba ma telomere amatopa ndikufupikitsa, koma gawo la DNA la chromosome limatetezedwa.

Makanda ali ndi ma telomere aatali, koma okalamba amakhala ndi ma telomere amfupi kwambiri. Ma telomere aatali ndi omwe amawongolera unyamata komanso kukonza minofu mwachangu.

Kodi telomere ndi chiyani? - Telomeres ndi kukalamba

Telomeres ndi kukalamba
Kodi ma telomere amakhudzana bwanji ndi ukalamba? - Kapangidwe ndi ntchito za ma telomere.

Telomeres ndi khansa

Kutalika kwa telomere ndi khansa zimagwirizananso.

Selo lililonse limatha kugawa ndi kubwereza DNA yake kangapo kangapo ma telomeres asanafowoke (fuseyo imawotchedwa) - pakadali pano, DNA yolembera tsopano ikuwonekera. Izi zimatchedwa kuti Malire a Hayflick. Maselo ambiri amatha kugawikana nthawi za 40-60 asanafike malire awa.

DNA yokhotakhota ikayamba kuwonongeka, masinthidwe owopsa amatha kuchitika omwe angayambitse khansa ngati selo likupitilira kugawikana.

Pofuna kupewa izi, maselo amakhala ndi "njira yowononga zowonongeka" yomwe imawalepheretsa kugawanika kamodzi fuse ya telomere yatha. Njirayi imatchedwa kukhalapo. Selo likayamba kukhala lokoma, limasiya kugawanika ndipo silimachita kalikonse, limakhala ngati "zombie cell".

Imeneyo ndi theka chabe la nkhani...

M'pofunikanso kumvetsa kuti khodi DNA akhoza kuonongeka m'njira zina zambiri kuchokera mutagens, monga ma radiation ya ionizing, zida zotulutsa ma radiation, ndi mankhwala ena. Ngati DNA yolembera ma cell iwonongeka kuchokera ku mutagen imatha kukhala khansa. Mwamwayi, malire ake a Hayflick amalepheretsa kubwereza mosalekeza, chomwe ndi chitetezo ku khansa. Ngati selo lowonongeka la DNA likhoza kugawa nthawi 40-60, zomwe zimalepheretsa kupanga chotupa chachikulu.

Zotupa za khansa ndi magulu a maselo omwe ali ndi ma coded owonongeka a DNA omwe adapitirizabe kugawikana mpaka kalekale chifukwa njira yowonongeka ya senescence inasiya kugwira ntchito bwino.

Kuchulukana kwa ma cell a senescent ndiko kumapangitsa kuti minofu ikalamba. Mwachitsanzo, kupangika kwa maselo akhungu ndi omwe amatsogolera ku khungu lamakwinya ndi lopyapyala muukalamba. Tizilombo tomwe timakhala tikakhala tambirimbiri timadzikonza mwapang'onopang'ono kuti zisawonongeke chifukwa maselo amthupi sangadzigawike ndikulowa m'malo.

Mwachidule, tili ndi malonda pakati pa ukalamba ndi khansa!

Kumbukirani, zonsezi zimachokera ku izi:

Minofu yopangidwa ndi ma cell okhala ndi ma telomere aatali imatenga nthawi yayitali kuti ikule ndipo imayambanso kuwonongeka ndikuwonongeka pang'onopang'ono. Komabe, chifukwa ma cellwa amatha kugawikana, amakhala pachiwopsezo cha khansa chifukwa alibe njira yowongolera kuwonongeka kwa malire a Hayflick.

Kodi ma telomere amakhudzana bwanji ndi kukula kwa khansa?

Telomeres ndi khansa
Momwe kutalika kwa telomere kungakhudzire chiopsezo cha khansa.

VUTO ndi mankhwala - Nkhani YAKULU

Chabwino, ndiye chifukwa chiyani chilichonse mwazinthu izi chikukhudzana ndi chitetezo chamankhwala?

Zonse zimatengera mbewa ...

Inde, mbewa!

Asayansi nthawi ina ankakhulupirira kuti mbewa zonse monga zamoyo zimakhala ndi ma telomere aatali. Zinanenedwa ndi Kipling ndi Cooke mu 1990 kuti mbewa zinali ndi "ma telomeres aatali kwambiri” zomwe zinali “zazikulu kaŵirikaŵiri kuposa zopezeka pa ma telomere aumunthu.”

Zomwe adapeza zinali zolondola koma nayi wowombera:

Zaka zoposa makumi awiri zapitazo, katswiri wa zamoyo Bret Weinstein anangoganiza kuti ma telomere aatali kwambiri amangopezeka mu mbewa za labu zowetedwa mu ukapolo, koma mbewa zakutchire zinali ndi ma telomere aatali.

Anali wolondola! Uku kunali kupeza kwakukulu!

Izi zidatsimikiziridwa ndi pepala lolemba Greider and Hemann (2000), poyerekezera kutalika kwa telomere kwa mbewa za labu ndi mbewa zakuthengo. Iwo anaganiza kuti “utali wa Telomere unali wamfupi kwambiri mitundu yochokera kutchire"!

Makoswe a labu ali ndi ma telomere aatali kwambiri.

Mbewa zakutchire zimakhala ndi ma telomere aatali.

Weinstein ndi Ciszek adatchulidwa mu lingaliro la reserve-capacity hypothesis (Pepala la 2002) kuti ma telomere aatali kwambiriwa anali "zotsatira zosayembekezereka za kuswana kwaukapolo". Amakhulupirira kuti zomwe zikuchitika m'malo oswana, monga mbewa zoswana ali aang'ono kwambiri kuti awonjezere kubereka (mbewa zobereketsa zimachotsedwa pa miyezi 8) zidapangitsa masinthidwe osakhala achilengedwe kutalika kwa telomere.

Kumbukirani kuyambira kale kuti ma telomere amafanana ndi kukonza minofu mwachangu?

Zowonadi, izi ndizomwe zidapezeka mu mbewa za labu monga zikuwonetseredwa Alexander, P. (1966). Iwo anati, “Chochititsa chidwi kwambiri n’chakuti ngakhale mbewa zakale kwambiri (monga zaka 2.5) zikaphedwa zidakali zolimba, zimakhala ndi matenda ochepa kwambiri ndipo zimakhala zosadziŵika bwino ndi nyama zing’onozing’ono” (mu 1966 ankakhulupirira kuti zimenezi n’zimene zimachititsa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.” mlandu wa mbewa zonse).

Makoswe a labotale omwe amawetedwa ali mu ukapolo adakhalabe achichepere mwachibadwa, anali ndi luso lokonzanso minofu yowonongeka, ndipo anali olimba modabwitsa kuvulala.

Anali mbewa zapamwamba! Koma pali chogwira chaching'ono ...

Kutsika kwa kuthekera kosinthika kwa maselo kumatanthauza kuti mbewa izi zinali pachiwopsezo chachikulu cha khansa chifukwa maselo awo samafika pakhungu! Analibe njira yochepetsera kuwonongeka yomwe imateteza khansa!

Makoswe a labu onsewa, ngati ataloledwa kukhala ndi moyo wonse, sakanafa ndi ukalamba, koma m'malo mwake, akanafa ndi khansa.

Nayi nkhani zoyipa:

Makoswe osinthikawa akugwiritsidwa ntchito poyesa zamankhwala ndi kafukufuku!

Ngati mankhwala omwe adayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa ma cell adayesedwa pa mbewa za labu, kuwonongeka kumeneko sikungathe kuzindikirika chifukwa mbewa zimatha kukonza minofu mwachangu mosagwirizana ndi chilengedwe. Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, chifukwa cha ma telomere a mbewa aatali kwambiri, chiopsezo chawo chokhala ndi khansa chidzakhala chokwera mopanda chibadwa.

Tili ndi vuto la kunyalanyaza kuwonongeka kwa minofu ndi kuyerekezera kwa khansa.

Izi zidakambidwa mwachidule kumapeto kwa pepala la Weinstein ndi Ciszek (2002) pomwe adawunikira izi:

"Choncho tiganizirenso za kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zinthu zomwe zimawoneka zotetezeka makamaka chifukwa zidakhala zopanda vuto kwa 'mbewa'. Nthawi yomweyo, kuyezetsa chitetezo ndi mbewa za labu kumatha kukulitsa chiopsezo cha khansa, zomwe zimapangitsa kusamala mosayenera pazinthu zina zofunika. ”

Tsoka ilo, palibe amene anamvetsera, ndipo pepalalo linakwiriridwa ndi gulu la sayansi. Mankhwala amatha kudutsa mayeso oyesa makoswe okhala ndi mitundu yowuluka pomwe zenizeni atha kuwononga kwambiri minofu.

Mankhwalawa atha kukhala mu kabati yanu yamankhwala!

Makoswe a labotale a Jackson
Makoswe a labotale a Jackson adapezeka kuti ali ndi ma telomere aatali kwambiri.

Tiyeni tikumbe mozama ...

Kupezeka kwa chibadwa chamtunduwu mu mbewa za labu, monga momwe adasindikizidwa ndi Greider and Hemann (2000) adapezeka mu mbewa za labu zoperekedwa ndi labotale ya Jackson (JAX) ku United States. Labu ya JAX ndi amodzi mwa omwe amapereka kwambiri mbewa za labu padziko lonse lapansi kwa ofufuza padziko lonse lapansi, makamaka mu United States.

Koma pali china chake chosangalatsa kuganizira ...

Kupeza uku kungangochitika mwachindunji chifukwa cha mbewa za labu la JAX chifukwa ndi omwe Greider ndi Hemann adayesedwa. Ngati mbewa za labu la Jackson ndi okhawo omwe apanga ma telomere aatali kwambiri, chimenecho chingakhale kufotokozera kwa chiwopsezo chokumbukira mankhwala osokoneza bongo ku United States, powona kuti ofufuza ambiri aku US amaperekedwa ndi labotale ya Jackson.

Chofunika kwambiri:

Izi zimabweretsa vuto lalikulu la ndondomeko zoweta zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa zinyama zonse zomwe zimaperekedwa kwa ofufuza. Kuswana ndi mibadwo ya zamoyo m'malo a labotale, pomwe zokakamiza zosankhidwa mwachilengedwe sizipezeka zitha kubweretsa masinthidwe osayembekezeka komanso osakhala achilengedwe.

Pamapeto pake, mankhwala ambiri amapangidwa kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu. Anthu asintha kwa zaka masauzande ambiri m’malo achilengedwe, osati mu labotale.

Kuyeza mankhwala pa nyama zomwe zasintha mosagwirizana ndi chilengedwe kuchokera ku kuswana kwa labotale yogwidwa mosakayikira ndi njira yosauka komanso yowopsa pakuyezetsa mankhwala ndi katemera.

Anthu alibe ma telomere aatali kwambiri ndipo tilibe mphamvu zopanda malire zokonzanso minofu, komabe mankhwala ena omwe timamwa mosadziwa adayesedwa pa nyama zomwe zimatero!

Ndiyo sayansi yovunda!

Chifukwa chiyani mbewa zili zofunika? - Ubwino woyesa nyama pa makoswe ang'onoang'ono

Mutha kukhala mukufunsa…

Nchifukwa chiyani mbewa zimakhala zofunikira pamene kuyezetsa mankhwala a zinyama kumachitidwanso pa zinyama zazikulu?

Uku ndi kusamvetsetsana kofala kwambiri. Kawirikawiri, mankhwala onse amayesedwa pa mbewa (ndi makoswe ena ang'onoang'ono), ndipo ngakhale pali mavuto pogwiritsa ntchito mbewa pofufuza, amaperekanso mwayi wapadera pakuyesa chitetezo cha mankhwala.

Ndicho chifukwa chake:

Zinyama zazing'ono ngati mbewa zachulukitsa moyo wawo nthawi zambiri mwachangu kuposa nyama zazikulu ndi anthu. Kuti tiwone bwino, Dutta and Sengupta (2015) "adapeza kuti chaka chimodzi chaumunthu ndi chofanana ndi masiku asanu ndi anayi a mbewa".

Mbewa ndizothandiza kwambiri kupeza zotsatira zanthawi yayitali zamankhwala zomwe zikadatenga zaka kuti ziwonekere pa nyama zazikulu.

Ichi ndichifukwa chake kuyezetsa nyama ndikofunikira!

Poyesa mankhwala, asayansi nthawi zambiri amapatsa makoswe ang'onoang'ono Mlingo wapamwamba kwambiri wamankhwala pakanthawi kochepa. Chiyembekezo ndichakuti zotsatirapo zilizonse zitha kukhala zomwe nyama yayikulu kapena munthu angakumane nayo pakanthawi yayitali pamilingo yocheperako.

Kumasulira kumeneku kwa umboni wofufuza kuchokera ku zinyama kupita kwa anthu sikungapusitsidwe, koma mwachidziwitso, makoswe ang'onoang'ono amalola asayansi kuyang'ana m'tsogolo kuti awone zotsatira za nthawi yaitali za mankhwala.

Ganizilani izi...

Imwani mankhwala omwe amayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa chiwalo pang'onopang'ono ndipo zimatenga zaka kuti ziwonetsedwe. Izi zingayese mayesero pa zinyama zazikulu koma zikhoza kulephera pa mbewa chifukwa cha kuthamanga kwa moyo wawo.

Ichi ndi chimodzi mwa ubwino waukulu wa kuyesa nyama pa makoswe ang'onoang'ono, chifukwa ikhoza kukhala njira yokhayo yothetsera kuwonongeka kwanthawi yaitali komwe kumabwera chifukwa cha mankhwala.

Mankhwala omwe amavulaza mbewa mwachangu amatha kuwonetsa kuvulala kwanthawi yayitali kwa anthu komwe kungatenge zaka zambiri kuti kuwonekera.

Kodi mukutha kumva chododometsachi chikulumikizana tsopano?

Pamene mbewa za labu zimakhala ndi ma telomeres aatali mosadziwika bwino ndipo zimatha kukonza kuwonongeka kwa maselo mofulumira kwambiri, chitsanzo chonse chodziwira zotsatira za nthawi yayitali chimatha!

Mankhwala amatha kukhala akuyesa mbewa chifukwa mbewa zimatha kukonza kuwonongeka kwa maselo mwachangu kwambiri kuti asayansi azindikire.

Pokhapokha mpaka mankhwalawa atavomerezedwa kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu ndipo anthu akhala akumwa kwa zaka zambiri pamene zotsatira za nthawi yayitali zimayamba kuonekera. Izi zitha kufotokoza chifukwa chake mankhwala ambiri amakumbukiridwa zaka zambiri pambuyo pake atavomerezedwa.

Panthawiyo, nthawi yatha! Miyoyo imatayika, mankhwalawa amakumbukiridwa, ndipo a FDA akuti "oops"!

Ndiye kuzungulira kubwereza!

Mbewa vs moyo wamunthu
Mbewa motsutsana ndi moyo wamunthu.

Zinthu zoyipa zomwe FDA yavomereza - Zitsanzo zosangalatsa

Pali mankhwala ambiri ovomerezeka a FDA omwe kale ankawoneka ngati otetezeka komanso ogwira mtima omwe tsopano amadziwika kuti ndi akupha.

Mndandanda wa zolephera za FDA ndi zazitali koma nazi zitsanzo zingapo zodetsa nkhawa kwambiri zomwe zitha kukhala chifukwa cha kusokonezeka kwa ma genetic pakuyesa nyama.

Nawa ena mwa masoka owopsa azamankhwala m'mbiri…

Kuchotsedwa kwa Cerivastatin

Lipobay cerivastatin kuchotsa
Lipobay (cerivastatin) idayambitsa rhabdomyolysis, kuwonongeka kofulumira kwa minofu ya chigoba.

Mankhwala omwe adadya anthu amoyo:

Mmodzi mwa mankhwala owopsa omwe adavomerezedwa ndi FDA anali cerivastatin, yomwe imadziwikanso ndi dzina lake Lipobay, yomwe inali ma statin opangira.

Ma Statins amalembedwa padziko lonse lapansi ngati gulu lodziwika bwino lamankhwala omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuchepetsa cholesterol mwa anthu omwe ali pachiwopsezo cha matenda amtima. Ku US, madokotala amalembera nthawi zonse 200 miliyoni statins pachaka.

Lipobay idagulitsidwa ndi kampani yopanga mankhwala ya Bayer kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1990. Idachotsedwa pamsika wapadziko lonse lapansi mu 2001 chifukwa chakupha anthu ambiri. Zinapezeka kuti ambiri mwa omwe amafa anali opha rhabdomyolysis chifukwa cha mankhwala. Rhabdomyolysis ndi vuto loyika moyo pachiwopsezo chifukwa cha kusweka kwa minofu mwachangu.

Lipobay anali kupangitsa kuti minyewa ya odwala iphwanyike!

Minofu ikasweka, imatulutsa puloteni yotchedwa myoglobin m’mwazi imene impso ziyenera kuchotsa. Mwambiri, impso sizitha kusefa myoglobin mwachangu, zomwe zimatha kuwononga impso, ndipo zikavuta kwambiri, kulephera kwa impso ndipo pamapeto pake kufa.

Imfa zambiri pakati pa odwala a Lipobay zidayamba chifukwa cha rhabdomyolysis komanso kulephera kwa impso. Zinapezeka kuti rhabdomyolysis yoyambitsidwa ndi ma statins 16 kwa nthawi 80 Kuchuluka kwa Lipobay poyerekeza ndi ma statins ena.

Kodi izi zinachitika bwanji?

Titha kungolingalira, koma ndizomveka kunena kuti kuwonongeka kwa minofu mofulumira kumeneku sikunawonekere panthawi ya mayesero a nyama ndi anthu. Zotsatira zakuphazi sizinadziwike mpaka patapita zaka zambiri Lipobay itavomerezedwa.

Mayesero azachipatala pa anthu mwina adayenda bwino popeza nthawi inali yochepa kwambiri kuti musazindikire izi. Komabe, mwina rhabdomyolysis ikanawonekera m'mayesero a mbewa chifukwa cha kufulumira kwa moyo wawo.

Tsoka ilo, mbewa za labu zokhala ndi ma telomere otalikirapo zimatha kukonzanso minofu ndi kuwonongeka kwa impso mwachangu kotero kuti zotsatira zake sizingadziwike.

Kodi tsoka limeneli likanapeŵedwa ngati zoyesera za nyama zikanachitidwa pa mbewa “zabwinobwino” osati pa zamoyo zoŵetedwa mu labotale?

Ndicho chitsanzo chimodzi chokha, pali mankhwala ambiri ovomerezeka a FDA omwe analephera.

Kutsutsana kwa Vioxx

Pali mndandanda wautali wamankhwala omwe akumbukiridwa omwe samayenera kupita kumsika.

Chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino zokumbukira mankhwala chinali rofecoxib, yomwe imadziwika kuti Vioxx, mankhwala osagwiritsidwa ntchito poletsa kutupa (NSAID) omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza nyamakazi ndi ululu waukulu. Vioxx adakumbukiridwa chifukwa cha malipoti a kuwonongeka kwa mtima komwe kudapangitsa kuti chiwopsezo cha mtima ndi sitiroko chiwonjezeke.

Zikutheka kuti Vioxx idayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa ma cell kumadera ambiri a thupi koma zidawoneka ngati kuwonongeka kwa mtima chifukwa maselo amtima samatha kusinthikanso.

Kuwonongeka kwa ma cell chifukwa cha Vioxx kuyenera kuzindikirika panthawi yoyeserera makoswe, koma pazifukwa zina, sizinawonekere.

Kuwonjezera kukumbukira

Mankhwala ofanana ndi Vioxx pamndandanda wakukumbukira wa FDA ndi valdecoxib, yomwe imadziwika kwambiri ndi dzina lake Bextra. Monga Vioxx, Bextra anali NSAID ina yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza nyamakazi.

Bextra idavomerezedwa mu Novembala 2001 ndi FDA. Adakumbukiridwanso mu Epulo 2005, pafupifupi zaka zinayi pambuyo pake. A FDA adatchula zifukwa zomwe zimakumbukira kukhala "chiwopsezo chowonjezereka cha zovuta zamtima ndi mtima (CV)" komanso "chiwopsezo chowonjezereka cha zovuta zapakhungu", kuphatikiza Matenda a Stevens-Johnson.

Kukumbukira kwa Bextra kunabweretsa chindapusa chachikulu kwambiri chamtundu uliwonse!

Kampani ya mankhwala Pfizer anayenera kulipira adapereka chindapusa chophwanya mbiri ya $ 1.3 biliyoni chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito molakwika mankhwalawa "ndi cholinga chobera kapena kusokeretsa". Pfizer adayeneranso kulipira $ 1 biliyoni pakuwonongeka kwa anthu.

Ingololani kuti mfundo iyi ilowe mkati ...

Chindapusa chachikulu kwambiri chomwe chinaperekedwapo m'mbiri yonse chinali cha kampani yamankhwala!

Matenda a Stevens-Johnson
Bextra adapezeka kuti amayambitsa matenda apakhungu a Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Rezulin kukumbukira

Komanso pamndandanda wazolephera zazikulu za FDA…

Troglitazone, dzina la malonda Rezulin, ankagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda a shuga ndipo inali vuto lina la mankhwala omwe anawononga chiwalo. Makamaka, Rezulin idayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa chiwindi.

Poyambirira, pambuyo pa malipoti ambiri okhudza kulephera kwa chiwindi mwadzidzidzi mwa odwala omwe amamwa mankhwalawa, a FDA adapereka machenjezo ofunikira kuwunika kwa mwezi ndi mwezi kwa ma enzymes a chiwindi mwa odwala.

Izi ndizodabwitsa:

Sipanapite nthawi pamene wodwala wazaka 55 anamwalira chifukwa cha kulephera kwa chiwindi pambuyo potenga Rezulin ngati gawo la kafukufuku yemwe amayang'aniridwa ndi National Institutes of Health (NIH) pomwe adafunsidwa ngati kuyang'anira kuchuluka kwa ma enzyme kunali kokwanira.

NIH idasiya mankhwalawo pa kafukufukuyu, ndipo posakhalitsa dokotala wa FDA yemwe adawunika Rezulin akuti atha kulumikizidwa ndi kulephera kwachiwindi kwa 430. Iwo anapeza kuti odwala anali ndi nthawi 1,200 chiopsezo chachikulu cha chiwindi kulephera pamene kumwa mankhwala.

Pa Marichi 21, 2000, a FDA adakumbukiranso Rezulin itakhala pamsika kwazaka zopitilira zitatu.

Kodi kuchotsa kwa Rezulin kukanapewedwa ngati kuwonongeka kwa chiwindi kudazindikirika pamayesero a makoswe?

Mankhwalawa ndi chitsanzo chaching'ono chabe cha mndandanda wautali wa mankhwala ovomerezeka a FDA omwe adakumbukiridwa pambuyo pake, koma amasonyeza momwe mankhwala amavomerezedwera kenako amakumbukiridwa zaka zambiri pambuyo pake (ndi miyoyo yambiri pambuyo pake) pamene zotsatira za nthawi yayitali zimayamba kubweretsa zonyansa. mutu.

Mwachidule:

Chochitika chilichonse chomvetsa chisoni chamankhwala chomwe chimakumbukiridwa chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa chiwalo/miyendo chikanatha kupewedwa ngati kuyesa kwa makoswe kunachitika pamitundu yodziwika bwino. Poyesa mankhwala, mbewa ndi makoswe ang'onoang'ono ndi katundu wamtengo wapatali koma ngati akuyimira chilengedwe.

Kuti zinthu ziipireipire…

Nanga bwanji za kuchuluka kwa mankhwala omwe angakhale opindulitsa omwe mwina adatayidwa chifukwa amawonedwa ngati kuchuluka kwa chiwopsezo cha khansa mu mbewa zomwe zidayamba kale kudwala khansa!?

Ndikuganiza kuti sitidzadziwa yankho la funso limenelo.

Kodi mankhwala ndi abwino? -Titani tsopano?

Mankhwala ali otetezeka

Uthengawu ndi womveka bwino:

Njira yonse yowunika momwe mankhwala amathandizira komanso chitetezo chake ndi cholakwika kwambiri. Sayansi yamakampani opanga mankhwala ndiyoola!

Ngakhale popanda kudziwa sayansi, kungoyang'ana kuchuluka kwa mankhwala ovomerezeka a FDA omwe akumbukiridwa ndi umboni womveka kuti chinachake chalakwika.

Zachisoni, pali mndandanda wambiri wamankhwala ovomerezeka a FDA omwe amapha ndikuwononga mabanja.

N’zosachita kufunsa kuti sayansi yakhala yopindulitsa kwambiri kwa anthu, koma si yangwiro, kapena mwinanso molondola kwambiri, asayansi ndi opanda ungwiro. Kufunsa sayansi sikumakupangitsani kukhala "otsutsa sayansi", kumakupangitsani kukhala katswiri wa sayansi chifukwa ndi zomwe sayansi imanena.

Asayansi amakayikira kafukufuku wam'mbuyomu, amapanga lingaliro ndikuyesa. Za chikhalidwe TV makampani ndi maboma kuti azitcha anthu "anti-science" akafunsa a katemera efficacy kufotokoza ndi openga. Ndiko "kutsutsa sayansi"!

Mwina ofufuza akadayembekezera kuti mapulogalamu akuluakulu obereketsa makoswe atha kubweretsa kusintha kwa majini komwe sikukanachitika mwachilengedwe, koma chofunikira pano ndikuvomereza cholakwikacho ndikuwongolera.

Komabe m'makampani omwe amapangidwa ndi phindu, kodi Big Pharma ndi yodalirika kuti ivomereze zolakwa?

Tsoka ilo, yankho ndi ayi, ndipo zikuwonekeratu kuchokera ku zolephera zakale za FDA kuti makampani opanga mankhwala achita chilichonse chomwe angathe kuti aletse kukumbukira kwakukulu. Amakonda kunena kuti "pepani" ndikulipira zochepa zowononga kwa ozunzidwa m'malo movomereza ndikuchotsa vuto lalikulu.

Pakhoza kukhala mazana, ngakhale masauzande amankhwala owopsa omwe alowa muukonde chifukwa cha kuyesa kolakwika kwa makoswe. Kuyesanso kuyesanso ndikukumbukira kukula kwake kungathe kuwononga kampani iliyonse yamankhwala padziko lapansi - koma thanzi la odwala ndilofunika kwambiri!

Koma mungatani?

Kudziwa ndi mphamvu, ndipo kuphunzitsa anthu ndi atolankhani za sayansi kumbuyo kwa nkhaniyi ndi sitepe yoyamba. Pokhala ndi anthu okwanira odziwitsidwa, opanga malamulo amatha kumvetsera, ndipo kulowererapo kwa boma kungagwire ntchito.

Zatha kwa inu, mulibe mphamvu, intaneti imapatsa aliyense mawu omwe amatha kufikira mamiliyoni. Patsani nkhaniyi SHARE, auzeni aliyense amene mukumudziwa, ndipo osayima mpaka zinthu zitasintha.

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WOLEMBA BIO

Wolemba chithunzi Richard Ahern LifeLine Media CEO

Richard Ahern
CEO wa LifeLine Media
Richard Ahern ndi CEO, bizinesi, Investor, ndi ndemanga ndale. Ali ndi chidziwitso chochuluka mubizinesi, atakhazikitsa makampani angapo, ndipo nthawi zonse amachita ntchito zamakambirano kumakampani apadziko lonse lapansi. Ali ndi chidziwitso chozama pazachuma, atakhala zaka zambiri akuphunzira nkhaniyi ndikuyika ndalama m'misika yapadziko lonse lapansi.
Nthawi zambiri mumatha kupeza Richard mutu wake utayikidwa mkati mwa bukhu, akuwerenga za chimodzi mwazokonda zake, kuphatikizapo ndale, psychology, kulemba, kusinkhasinkha, ndi sayansi ya makompyuta; mwa kuyankhula kwina, iye ndi wopusa.
Imelo: Richard@lifeline.news Instagram: @Richard.Ahern Twitter: @RichardJAhern

Bwererani pamwamba pa tsamba.

By Richard Ahern - LifeLine Media

Contact: Richard@lifeline.news

Lofalitsidwa: 16 February 2022

Kusinthidwa Komaliza: 16 February 2022

Zothandizira (chitsimikizo chowona):

  1. Ziwerengero Zokumbukira Mankhwala a FDA: https://www.maylightfootlaw.com/blogs/fda-drug-recall-statistics/ [Ziwerengero zovomerezeka]
  2. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Deoxyribonucleic-Acid [Webusaiti ya boma]
  3. Kugawanika kwa ma cell / mitosis: https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/mitosis-cell-division-47/ [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]
  4. Mlandu wa Junk DNA: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014423/ [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]
  5. Telomeres, moyo, khansa, ndi ukalamba: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370421/ [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  6. Malire a Hayflick: https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/hayflick-limit#:~:text=The%20Hayflick%20Limit%20is%20a,programmed%20cell%20death%20or%20apoptosis. [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]
  7. Senescence ndi kukalamba: Zomwe zimayambitsa, zotsatira zake, ndi njira zochiritsira: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748990/ [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  8. Zosintha Zachilengedwe, Kuwonetsa Ma cell ndi Kukonza DNA: https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/environmental-mutagens-cell-signalling-and-dna-repair-1090/ [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]
  9. Ma telomere otalika kwambiri mu mbewa: https://www.nature.com/articles/347400a0 [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  10. Bret Weinstein pa "The Portal" (w/ host Eric Weinstein), Ep. #019 - Kuneneratu ndi DISC: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLb5hZLw44s [Molunjika kuchokera kugwero] 
  11. Mitundu ya mbewa yochokera kuthengo ili ndi ma telomere amfupi: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11071935/ [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  12. The Reserve-Capacity Hypothesis: Chisinthiko Chochokera ndi Zomwe Zachitika Zamakono Zakugulitsana Pakati Pa Kuponderezedwa Kwa Chotupa ndi Kukonza Minofu: https://www.gwern.net/docs/longevity/2002-weinstein.pdf [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  13. Alexander, P., 1966. Malingaliro mu Experimental Gerontology. masamba 266-279. [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  14. Amuna ndi mbewa: Zokhudza zaka zawo: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26596563/ [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  15. Cerivastatin: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cerivastatin [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]  
  16. Zochitika Padziko Lonse mu Kugwiritsa Ntchito Ma Statin ndi Ndalama mu US Akuluakulu Population Kuyambira 2002 mpaka 2013: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2583425 [Ziwerengero zovomerezeka]
  17. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Matenda, ndi Chithandizo: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4365849/ [Kafukufuku wowunikiridwa ndi anzawo]
  18. Zachipatala zofotokozera zachipatala za cerivastatin-zogwirizana ndi rhabdomyolysis: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1563-258X.2003.03029.x [Nkhani yamaphunziro/tsamba lawebusayiti]
  19. Mafunso ndi Mayankho a Vioxx (rofecoxib): https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/vioxx-rofecoxib-questions-and-answers#:~:text=Vioxx%20is%20a%20COX%2D2,3. [Webusaiti ya boma]
  20. Valdecoxib: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valdecoxib [Webusaiti yapamwamba komanso yodalirika] {Kuwerenganso}
  21. Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7700/stevens-johnson-syndrometoxic-epidermal-necrolysis [Webusaiti ya boma]
  22. US v. Pfizer, Inc. - Pangano Lothetsa: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ma/press-release/file/1066111/download [Chikalata cha khothi]
  23. Rezulin: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/1999/20720s12lbl.pdf [Webusaiti ya boma]
  24. Troglitazone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troglitazone [Webusaiti yapamwamba komanso yodalirika] {Kuwerenganso}

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mlendo
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Cat Edwards
Cat Edwards
masiku 19 zapitazo

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Becky Thurmond
2 miyezi yapitayo

Panopa ndikupanga ndalama zoposera 350 dollars patsiku pogwira ntchito pa intaneti ndili kunyumba osayikapo ndalama. Lowani ulalowu potumiza ntchito tsopano ndikuyamba kulandira ndalama osayikapo kapena kugulitsa chilichonse……. 
ZABWINO ZONSE..____ http://Www.HomeCash1.Com

Idasinthidwa komaliza miyezi 2 yapitayo ndi Becky Thurmond
jasmin loutra loura
jasmin loutra loura
2 miyezi yapitayo

Kupeza ndalama zowonjezera mwezi uliwonse kuchokera kunyumba kuposa $26k ndi njira yogwiritsira ntchito kupanga zofanizira ndikuyika ngati chiwongola dzanja cha pa intaneti. Ndalandiradi $18636 kuchokera ku chiwongola dzanja chaukhondo ichi Aliyense tsopano atha kupanga ndalama zowonjezera pa intaneti popanda vuto ndi kagwiritsidwe ka ntchito ka …….. https://salarybaar234.blogspot.com

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